芳香族化合物是一类具有苯环结构的有机物,它们结构稳定,不易分解,并可通过食物链进行生物富集和生物放大,对生态环境及人类健康造成极大危害。细菌具有超强的分解代谢能力,能降解多环芳烃(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs)等多种难降解芳香族污染物。吸附和转运是细菌进行芳香族化合物细胞内代谢的前提。虽然芳香族化合物的细菌降解已取得较为显著的研究进展,但吸附和转运机理仍不甚清楚。本文讨论了细菌对芳香族化合物的吸附有积极作用的细胞表面疏水性、生物被膜形成和细菌趋化性等影响因素,总结了FadL家族、TonB依赖性受体蛋白、OmpW家族等外膜转运系统和主要协同转运蛋白超家族(major facilitator superfamily, MFS)转运体、ATP结合盒(ATP-binding cassette, ABC)转运蛋白等内膜转运系统对该类化合物跨膜运输作用,并对跨膜转运机制进行了讨论和阐述,旨在为芳香族污染物的防控和治理提供一定理论参考。
Aromatic compounds are a class of organic compounds with benzene ring(s). Aromatic compounds are hardly decomposed due to its stable structure and can be accumulated in the food cycle, posing a great threat to the ecological environment and human health. Bacteria have a strong catabolic ability to degrade various refractory organic contaminants (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs). The adsorption and transportation are prerequisites for the catabolism of aromatic compounds by bacteria. While remarkable progress has been made in understanding the metabolism of aromatic compounds in bacterial degraders, the systems responsible for the uptake and transport of aromatic compounds are poorly understood. Here we summarize the effect of cell-surface hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, and bacterial chemotaxis on the bacterial adsorption of aromatic compounds. Besides, the effects of outer membrane transport systems (such as FadL family, TonB-dependent receptors, and OmpW family), and inner membrane transport systems (such as major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) involved in the membrane transport of these compounds are summarized. Moreover, the mechanism of transmembrane transport is also discussed. This review may serve as a reference for the prevention and remediation of aromatic pollutants.