血红素是一种广泛存在于生物体中的卟啉类化合物,具有多种生理功能。解淀粉芽胞杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)具有易于培养、分泌表达能力较强等特点,是一种重要的工业菌株。为了筛选血红素合成的最优出发菌株,以不添加和添加5-氨基乙酰丙酸(5-aminolevulinic acid, ALA)的方式,对实验室保藏菌株进行筛选,发现不添加ALA时,菌株BA、BAΔ6、BAΔ6ΔsigF的血红素产量无明显差别;然而添加ALA后,BAΔ6ΔsigF的血红素产量和比生产能力均为最高,分别达到200.77μmol/L和615.70 μmol/(L·g DCW)。因此,以BAΔ6ΔsigF为出发菌株,敲除编码细胞色素组装蛋白HemX的hemX基因,探究其在血红素合成途径中的作用,发现敲除菌株发酵液明显变红,且生长未受到明显影响;摇瓶发酵12 h时ALA浓度最高,为82.13 mg/L,略高于对照的75.11 mg/L;不添加ALA时,血红素产量和比生产能力分别为对照的1.99倍和1.45倍;添加ALA后,血红素产量和比生产能力分别为对照的2.08倍和1.72倍;实时定量荧光PCR (real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR, RT-qPCR)表明,hemA、hemL、hemB、hemC、hemD、hemQ基因的转录水平上调。说明hemX基因的缺失可提高血红素产量,这为高产血红素菌株的开发奠定了基础。
Heme, which exists widely in living organisms, is a porphyrin compound with a variety of physiological functions. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an important industrial strain with the characteristics of easy cultivation and strong ability for expression and secretion of proteins. In order to screen the optimal starting strain for heme synthesis, the laboratory preserved strains were screened with and without addition of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). There was no significant difference in the heme production of strains BA, BAΔ6 and BAΔ6ΔsigF. However, upon addition of ALA, the heme titer and specific heme production of strain BAΔ6ΔsigF were the highest, reaching 200.77 μmol/L and 615.70 μmol/(L·g DCW), respectively. Subsequently, the hemX gene (encoding the cytochrome assembly protein HemX) of strain BAΔ6ΔsigF was knocked out to explore its role in heme synthesis. It was found that the fermentation broth of the knockout strain turned red, while the growth was not significantly affected. The highest ALA concentration in flask fermentation reached 82.13 mg/L at 12 h, which was slightly higher than that of the control 75.11 mg/L. When ALA was not added, the heme titer and specific heme production were 1.99 times and 1.45 times that of the control, respectively. After adding ALA, the heme titer and specific heme production were 2.08 times and 1.72 times higher than that of the control, respectively. Real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR showed that the expressions of hemA, hemL, hemB, hemC, hemD, and hemQ genes at transcription level were up-regulated. We demonstrated that deletion of hemX gene can improve the production of heme, which may facilitate future development of heme-producing strain.